Backdrop: CAS Foreign members (1994-2002)
According to the by-law, the election of foreign members is held every two years. A candidate for foreign members shall become eligible only when nominated by not less than five members. At election, each member may nominate no more than two candidates. The election shall be held at the CAS General Assembly by secret ballot. A candidate will be elected a foreign member when more than half of the membership take part in the election and when the candidate wins not less than two their of the votes cast.
From 1994 to 2002, five elections have been held and a total of 46 foreign members were elected.
The first election was held on June 8, 1994, and 14 scientists were elected CAS foreign members: Derek Harold Richard Barton (U.K.), L.L. Chang (U.S.), S.S. Chern (U.S.), Y.C. Fung (U.S.), T.D. Lee (U.S.), C.C. Lin (U.S.), Joseph Needham (U.K.), P. H. Raven (U.S.), Herbert A. Simon (U.S.), C.L. Tien (U.S.), Samuel C.C. Ting (U.S.), C.N. Yang (U.S.), C.S. Wu (U.S.), and S.T. Yau (U.S.).
In the second election 10 foreign members were elected on June 7, 1996: Robert Wolfgang (U.K.), Cahn, A.Y. Cho (U.S.), Wilbur Norman Christiansen (Australia), C.W. Chu (U.S.), Y.W. Kan (U.S.), Charles K. Kao (U.S.), T.Y. Lin (U.S.), H.K. Mao (U.S.), Y.R. Shen (U.S.) and Peter J. Wyllie (U.S.).
The third election was held on June 5, 1998, eight foreign members were elected: Burrel Clark Burchfiel (U.S.), Steven Chu (U.S.), Ernest S. Kuh (U.S.), Norman N. Li (U.S.), Jacques-Louis Lions (France), Rudolph A. Marcus (U.S.), Helmut Moritz (Austria) and Olgierd Cecil Zienkiewicz (U.K.).
The fourth election was held in June 2000, seven foreign members were elected: Y. Austin Chang, (U.S.); Tsui Daniel Chee, (U.S.); Y. C. Ho, (U.S.); Tomas Hokfelt,, (Sweden); H. Inokuchi, (Japan); Hartmut Michel, (Germany); C.T. Sah, (U.S.).
The Fifth election was held in June 2002, seven foreign members were elected: Cotton, Frank. A. (U.S.) , Friis, Else Marie (Sweden), Hoskins, Brian John (U.K.), Huang, Thomas S., (U. S.), Khush, Gurdev S. (India), Panofsky, Wolfgang K.H. (U.S), Wu, Theodore Y. (U.S.)
The by-Law stipulates that foreign members have the right to make suggestions for the S&T development in this country and the work of CAS Academic Divisions. When invited, they may attend relevant meetings and academic activities organized by the divisions, and they may receive publications issued by the divisions. They are not entitled to nominate candidates for members or foreign members, or to vote or stand for election at CAS Academic Divisions.