In human, the ovary is one of the organs exhibiting early-onset aging-associated dysfunction. As a critical female reproductive organ, the ovary consists of numerous heterogeneous cell types including follicles at different developmental stages. To date, however, it is difficult to accurately reveal the molecular mechanisms of human ovarian aging, and our understanding of human ovarian aging and the development of interventions against human ovarian aging and associated diseases are hindered.
Recently, scientists from the Institute of Zoology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peking University, and Salk Institute for Biological Studies have worked jointly and established the first single-cell transcriptomic atlas of primate ovarian aging, and established the first multi-tissue single-cell transcriptomic atlases in Rattus norvegicus undergoing aging and CR.
Using the single-cell transcriptome sequencing technology, they drew a comprehensive aging roadmap of cynomolgus monkey ovaries at the single-cell resolution. Through the bioinformatic analyses of the single-cell transcriptomic data of ovarian tissues from monkeys and the experimental validation in human ovarian cells, they identified the disturbance of antioxidant signaling as a main feature of primate ovarian aging.
They also drew the atlases for the transcriptional networks during aging and CR based on the transcriptome analyses of more than 200,000 single cells and nuclei from nine tissues in groups of young rats fed ad libitum, old rats fed ad libitum and old rats subjected to CR since middle adulthood.
The researchers also systematically evaluated the effects of aging and CR on different types of tissues and cells in the body at multiple dimensions, and revealed new molecular mechanisms of CR in delaying aging via the regulation of inflammatory responses in multiple organs.
Related results were published in Cell entitled "Single-Cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Primate Ovarian Aging" and "Caloric Restriction Reprograms the Single-Cell Transcriptional Landscape of Rattus Norvegicus Aging".