ALI Sakina Fakhraddin Adam
Dr. ALI was born in 1958. She met a lot of difficulties in her academic life and she struggled to overcome it. She reached the high school that was in 1979 in Yeman, when few females were attending the 12th year board exams. She received her BSc in Sana’a University in 1984.She finished her MSc in Physics in 1989 from Michigan State University, USA and finished her PhD degree in 2000 in Cairo University Egypt.
Her current field of research is Nucleus - Nucleus interactions at high energies using emulsion plates. Her contribution to science can be given in the following:
· The dominant goal of investigating nucleus-nucleus (N-N) collisions at high energies, is to search for new phenomena, that could not occur in hadron-hadron or hadron-nucleus reactions, such as, complex states of nuclear matter, which scientists believe their occurrence during the creation of the universe. These states require high pressure, high temperature and a large baryon density, which could not be reached in a single hadron- hadron collision. One way of reproducing these conditions in laboratory, is by colliding heavy ion beams.
· The behaviour of the nuclear matter in hot and compressed phase has showed the collective motion of the nuclear matter. It is expected that the state of high energy density created in such collisions may attain a state of thermal equilibrium, which may lead to a collective flow. The latter can be defined as a cooperative emission of particles.
· The emulsion experiments have made some efforts to understand the nuclear multifragmentation process. In nuclear multifragmentation, many light and intermediate mass fragments will be produced. We consider that the light fragments are mainly the result of evaporation processes, while the heaviest fragment is a residual one. Multifragmentation has been considered to be one of the most important aspects of heavy-ion collisions, since it has been speculated that the decay of highly excited nuclear system might carry information about the equation of state and the liquid-gas phase transition of low-density nuclear matter. Recently, there has been a considerable progress in the study of nuclear multifragmentation in heavy-ion collisions
· One more field that could benefit from such studies is "Hadrontherapy" used for cancer treatment. It leads to a high therapeutical effectiveness with minimal damage to neighboring tissues. The study of projectile fragmentations therefore is important to ascertain and optimize the precision in hitting the tumor with minimal effects on the neighboring tissues.